Groundwater arsenic contamination in the Bengal Delta Plain is an important public health issue
There is a close association between human biology, epidemiology and public health. Exposure to toxic elements is one area of such associations and global concerns. The Bengal Delta Plain (BDP) is a region where contamination of ground water by arsenic has assumed epidemic proportions. Apart from dermatological manifestations, chronic exposure to arsenic causes a heavy toll through several carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic disorders. This article provides a global overview of groundwater arsenic contamination in the BDP region, especially the sources, speciation, and mobility of arsenic, and critically reviews the effects of arsenic on human health. The present review also provides a summary of comprehensive knowledge on various measures required for mitigation and social consequences of the problem of arsenic contaminated groundwater in the BDP region.
Acharyya, S. K./Ashyiya, I. D./Pandey, Y./Lahiri, S./Khongan, V. W./Sarkar, S. K. (2001). Arsenic contamination in groundwater in parts of Ambagarh Chowki - Korse Kohari belt (Dongargarh-Kotri rift zone), Chhattisgrah. In: National symposium role of earth sciences in integrated development and related societal issues, 2-4 November 2001, Lucknow. special publication 65 (I). Kolkata, Geological Survey of India, vii–xviii.
Acharyya, S. K./Chakraborty, P./Lahiri, S./Raymahashay, B. C./Guha, S./Bhowmik, A. (1999). Arsenic poisoning in the Ganges delta. Nature 401 (6753), 545; discussion 546-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/44052.
Acharyya, Subhrangsu K./Shah, Babar A. (2007). Groundwater arsenic contamination affecting different geologic domains in India -- a review: influence of geological setting, fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary stratigraphy. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 42 (12), 1795–1805. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520701566744.
Adel, M. M. (2005). The background state leading to arsenic contamination of Bengal basin groundwater. Journal of Water and Health 3 (4), 435–452. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2005.053.
Ahamed, S./Kumar Sengupta, M./Mukherjee, A./Amir Hossain, M./Das, B./Nayak, B./Pal, A./Chandra Mukherjee, S./Pati, S./Nath Dutta, R./Chatterjee, G./Srivastava, R./Chakraborti, D. (2006a). Arsenic groundwater contamination and its health effects in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in upper and middle Ganga plain, India: A severe danger. The Science of the Total Environment 370 (2-3), 310–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.06.015.
Ahamed, S./Sengupta, M. K./Mukherjee, S. C./Pati, S./Mukherjeel, A./Rahman, M. M./Hossain, M. A./Das, B./Nayakl, B./Pal, A./Zafar, A./Kabir, S./Banu, S. A./Morshed, S./Islam, T./Quamruzzaman, Q./Chakraborti, D. (2006b). An eight-year study report on arsenic contamination in groundwater and health effects in Eruani village, Bangladesh and an approach for its mitigation. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 24 (2), 129–141.
Ahmad, A./Bhattacharya, P. (2019). Arsenic in drinking water: is 10 μg/L a safe limit? Current Pollution Reports 5 (1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40726-019-0102-7.
Ahmad, J./Goldar, B./Misra, S. (2006). Rural communities' preferences for arsenic mitigation options in Bangladesh. Journal of Water and Health 4 (4), 463–477.
Ahmad, S. A./Khan, M. H./Haque, M. (2018). Arsenic contamination in groundwater in Bangladesh: implications and challenges for healthcare policy. Risk management and healthcare policy 11, 251–261. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S153188.
Ahmad, S. A./Sayed, M. H. S./Khan, M. H./Karim, M. N./Haque, M. A./Bhuiyan, M. S. A./Rahman, M. S./Faruquee, M. H. (2007). Sociocultural aspects of arsenicosis in Bangladesh: community perspective. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 42 (12), 1945–1958. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567247.
Ahmad, S. Akhtar/Sayed, M. H. Salim Ullah/Barua, S./Khan, M. Haque/Faruquee, M. H./Jalil, A./Hadi, S. Abdul/Talukder, H. Kabir (2001). Arsenic in Drinking Water and Pregnancy Outcomes. Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (6), 629. https://doi.org/10.2307/3455038.
Ahmed, I./Amin, A. (1997). Arsenic on tap. People & the Planet 6 (3).
Ahn, J. S. (2012). Geochemical occurrences of arsenic and fluoride in bedrock groundwater: a case study in Geumsan County, Korea. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 34 (1), 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-011-9411-5.
Ahsan, Habibul/Chen, Y./Parvez, F./Argos, M./Hussain, A. I./Momotaj, H./Levy, D./van Geen, A./Howe, G./Graziano, J. (2006). Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS): description of a multidisciplinary epidemiologic investigation. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 16 (2), 191–205. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500449.
Akter, A./Ali, M. H. (2011). Arsenic contamination in groundwater and its proposed remedial measures. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 8 (2), 433–443. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03326230.
Al Rmalli, S. W./Haris, P. I./Harrington, C. F./Ayub, M. (2005). A survey of arsenic in foodstuffs on sale in the United Kingdom and imported from Bangladesh. The Science of the Total Environment 337 (1-3), 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.06.008.
Amaya, A. (2002). Arsenic in groundwater of alluvial aquifers in Nawalparasi and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Stockholm, 2002.
Argos, M./Ahsan, H./Graziano, J. H. (2012). Arsenic and human health: epidemiologic progress and public health implications. Reviews on environmental health 27 (4), 191–195. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2012-0021.
Argos, M./Kalra, T./Rathouz, P. J./Chen, Y./Pierce, B./Parvez, F./Islam, T./Ahmed, A./Rakibuz-Zaman, M./Hasan, R./Sarwar, G./Slavkovich, V./van Geen, A./Graziano, J./Ahsan, H. (2010). Arsenic exposure from drinking water, and all-cause and chronic-disease mortalities in Bangladesh (HEALS): a prospective cohort study. The Lancet 376 (9737), 252–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60481-3.
Asadullah, M. N./Chaudhury, N. (2011). Poisoning the mind: Arsenic contamination of drinking water wells and children's educational achievement in rural Bangladesh. Institute for the Study of Labor. Bonn. IZA Discussion Papers 5716. Available online at http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-201106013290.
Aziz, S. N./Boyle, K. J./Rahman, M. (2006). Knowledge of arsenic in drinking-water: risks and avoidance in Matlab, Bangladesh. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 24 (3), 327–335.
Bae, H.-S./Kang, I.-G./Lee, S.-G./Eom, S.-Y./Kim, Y.-D./Oh, S.-Y./Kwon, H.-J./Park, K.-S./Kim, H./Choi, B.-S./Yu, I.-J./Park, J. D. (2017). Arsenic exposure and seafood intake in Korean adults. Human & Experimental Toxicology 36 (5), 451–460. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327116665673.
Baker, P. T. (1982). Human population biology: a viable transdisciplinary science. Human biology 54 (2), 203–220.
Bentley, K./Soebandrio, A. (2017). Arsenic and mercury concentrations in marine fish sourced from local fishermen and fish markets in mine-impacted communities in Ratatotok Sub-district, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Marine pollution bulletin 120 (1-2), 75–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.058.
Berg, M./Luzi, S./Trang, P. T. K./Viet, P. H./Giger, W./Stüben, D. (2006). Arsenic removal from groundwater by household sand filters: comparative field study, model calculations, and health benefits. Environmental Science & Technology 40 (17), 5567–5573. https://doi.org/10.1021/es060144z.
Berg, M./Tran, H. C./Nguyen, T. C./Pham, H. V./Schertenleib, R./Giger, W. (2001). Arsenic contamination of groundwater and drinking water in Vietnam: a human health threat. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (13), 2621–2626. https://doi.org/10.1021/es010027y.
Bhattacharya, P./Chatterjee, D./Jacks, G. (1997). Occurrence of Arsenic-contaminated Groundwater in Alluvial Aquifers from Delta Plains, Eastern India. Options for Safe Drinking Water Supply. International Journal of Water Resources Development 13 (1), 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900629749944.
Bhattacharyya, R./Chatterjee, D./Nath, B./Jana, J./Jacks, G./Vahter, M. (2003). High arsenic groundwater: mobilization, metabolism and mitigation--an overview in the Bengal Delta Plain. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 253 (1-2), 347–355. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1026001024578.
Biomarkers Definitions Working Group (2001). Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 69 (3), 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1067/mcp.2001.113989.
Brahman, K. D./Kazi, T. G./Afridi, H. I./Naseem, S./Arain, S S./Wadhwa, S. K./Shah, F. (2013). Simultaneously evaluate the toxic levels of fluoride and arsenic species in underground water of Tharparkar and possible contaminant sources: a multivariate study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 89, 95–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.11.023.
Braman, R. S. (1975). Arsenic in the Environment. In: Arsenical Pesticides. American Chemical Society, 108–123.
Brammer, H./Ravenscroft, P. (2009). Arsenic in groundwater: a threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia. Environment International 35 (3), 647–654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2008.10.004.
Bundschuh, J./Litter, M. I./Bhattacharya, P. (2010). Targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for drinking water supplies. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 32 (4), 307–315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9308-8.
Buschmann, J./Berg, M./Stengel, C./Winkel, L./Sampson, M. L./Trang, P. T. K./Viet, P. H. (2008). Contamination of drinking water resources in the Mekong delta floodplains: arsenic and other trace metals pose serious health risks to population. Environment International 34 (6), 756–764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2007.12.025.
Chakraborti, D. (2016). Is WHO guideline value of arsenic in drinking water 10 ppb in the developing countries safe to drink? BLDE University Journal of Health Sciences 1 (1), 57. https://doi.org/10.4103/2456-1975.183289.
Chakraborti, D./Das, B./Rahman, M. M./Chowdhury, U. K./Biswas, B./Goswami, A. B./Nayak, B./Pal, A./Sengupta, M. K./Ahamed, S./Hossain, A./Basu, G./Roychowdhury, T./Das, D. (2009). Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in the state of West Bengal, India: a 20-year study report. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 53 (5), 542–551. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700517.
Chakraborti, D./Mukherjee, S. C./Pati, S./Sengupta, M. K./Rahman, M. M./Chowdhury, U. K./Lodh, D./Chanda, C. R./Chakraborti, A. K./Basu, G. K. (2003). Arsenic groundwater contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar, India: a future danger? Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (9), 1194–1201. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.5966.
Chakraborti, D./Paul, K./Chowdhury, U. K./Lodh, D./Chanda, C. R./Saha, K. C. (2002). Arsenic calamity in the Indian subcontinent. what lessons have been learned? Talanta 58 (1), 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0039-9140(02)00270-9.
Chakraborti, D./Rahman, M. M./Das, B./Murrill, M./Dey, S./Chandra Mukherjee, S./Dhar, R. K./Biswas, B. K./Chowdhury, U. K./Roy, S./Sorif, S./Selim, M./Rahman, M./Quamruzzaman, Q. (2010). Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: a 14-year study report. Water Research 44 (19), 5789–5802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.051.
Chakraborti, D./Sengupta, M. K./Rahman, M. M./Ahamed, S./Chowdhury, U. K./Hossain, M. A./Mukherjee, S. C./Pati, S./Saha, K. C./Dutta, R. N./Quamruzzaman, Q. (2004). Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra plain. Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM 6 (6), 74N-83N.
Chakraborti, D./Singh, S. K./Rahman, M. M./Dutta, R. N./Mukherjee, S. C./Pati, S./Kar, P. B. (2018). Groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ganga River Basin: a future health danger. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020180.
Chatterjee, A./Mukherjee, A. (1999). Hydrogeological investigation of ground water arsenic contamination in South Calcutta. The Science of the Total Environment 225 (3), 249–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(98)00367-2.
Chattopadhyay, B. P./Mukherjee, A. K./Gangopadhyay P. K./Alam, J./Roychowdhury, A. (2010). Respiratory effect related to exposure of different concentrations of arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering 52, 147–154.
Chauhan, V. S./Yunus, M./Sankararamakrishnan, N. (2012). Geochemistry and mobilization of arsenic in Shuklaganj area of Kanpur-Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184 (8), 4889–4901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2310-5.
Chen, C.-J./Chen, S.-Y./Chen, C.-L./Chen, C.-Y./Cheng, Y.-C./Chiou, H.-Y./Chou, W.-L./Hsu, L.-I./Hsu, Y.-H./Hsueh, Y.-M./Lee, C.-Y./Lin, Y.-C./Shih, W.-L./Tseng, M.-P./Wang, Y.-H./Wang, L.-H./Wang, C.-H./Wu, M.-M. (2005). Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility of arsenic-induced health hazards in Taiwan. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 206 (2), 198–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2004.10.023.
Chen, Y./Ahsan, H. (2004). Cancer burden from arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh. American Journal of Public Health 94 (5), 741–744. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.94.5.741.
Chen, Y./Parvez, F./Gamble, M./Islam, T./Ahmed, A./Argos, M./Graziano, J. H./Ahsan, H. (2009). Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the health effects of arsenic longitudinal study (HEALS) in Bangladesh. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 239 (2), 184–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.01.010.
Chowdhury, U. K./Biswas, B. K./Chowdhury, T. R./Samanta, G./Mandal, B. K./Basu, G. C./Chanda, C. R./Lodh, D./Saha, K. C./Mukherjee, S. K./Roy, S./Kabir, S./Quamruzzaman, Q./Chakraborti, D. (2000). Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (5), 393–397. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.00108393.
Cohen, S. M./Arnold, L. L./Eldan, M./Lewis, A. S./Beck, B. D. (2006). Methylated arsenicals: the implications of metabolism and carcinogenicity studies in rodents to human risk assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 36 (2), 99–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440500534230.
Costa, M. (2019). Review of arsenic toxicity, speciation and polyadenylation of canonical histones. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 375, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2019.05.006.
Das, D./Chatterjee, A./Mandal, B. K./Samanta, G./Chakraborti, D./Chanda, B. (1995). Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part 2. Arsenic concentration in drinking water, hair, nails, urine, skin-scale and liver tissue (biopsy) of the affected people. The Analyst 120 (3), 917–924. https://doi.org/10.1039/an9952000917.
Das, D./Chatterjee, A./Samanta, G./Mandal, B./Chowdhury, T. R./Chowdhury, P. P./Chanda, C./Basu, G./Lodh, D. (1994). Arsenic contamination in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. The Analyst 119 (12), 168N-170N. https://doi.org/10.1039/an994190168n.
Deb, D./Biswas, A./Ghose, A./Das, A./Majumdar, K. K./Guha Mazumder, D. N. (2013). Nutritional deficiency and arsenical manifestations: a perspective study in an arsenic-endemic region of West Bengal, India. Public Health Nutrition 16 (9), 1644–1655. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012004697.
Deuel, L. E./Swoboda, A. R. (1972). Arsenic toxicity to cotton and soybeans. Journal of Environmental Quality 1 (3), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1972.00472425000100030026x.
Dhar, R. K./Biswas, B. K./Samanta, G./Mandal, B. K./Roychowdhury, T./Chanda, C. R./Basu, G./Chakraborti, D./Roy, S./Kabir, S./Zafar, A./Faruk, I./Islam, K. S./Choudhury, M./Arif, A. I. (1998). Groundwater arsenic contamination and suffering of people in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. In: International conference on arsenic pollution of groundwater in Bangladesh. Causes, Effects and Remedies; Dhaka, Bangladesh, Feb. 8-12, 1998, 86–87.
Dittmar, J./Voegelin, A./Roberts, L. C./Hug, S. J./Saha, G. C./Ali, M. A./Badruzzaman, A. B. M./Kretzschmar, R. (2010). Arsenic accumulation in a paddy field in Bangladesh: seasonal dynamics and trends over a three-year monitoring period. Environmental Science & Technology 44 (8), 2925–2931. https://doi.org/10.1021/es903117r.
Ehrenstein, O. S. von/Poddar, S./Yuan, Y./Mazumder, D. G./Eskenazi, B./Basu, A./Hira-Smith, M./Ghosh, N./Lahiri, S./Haque, R./Ghosh, A./Kalman, D./Das, S./Smith, A. H. (2007). Children's intellectual function in relation to arsenic exposure. Epidemiology 18 (1), 44–51. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000248900.65613.a9.
Fatmi, Z./Azam, I./Ahmed, F./Kazi, A./Gill, A. B./Kadir, M. M./Ahmed, M./Ara, N./Janjua, N. Z. (2009). Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source? Environmental Research 109 (5), 575–581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.002.
Fazal, M. A./Kawachi, T./Ichion, E. (2001). Extent and severity of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. Water International 26 (3), 370–379. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060108686929.
Ferguson, J. F./Gavis, J. (1972). A review of the arsenic cycle in natural waters. Water Research 6 (11), 1259–1274.
Gambrell, R. P./Patrick, W. H. (1989). Cu, Zn, and Cd availability in a sludge-amended soil under controlled pH and redox potential conditions. In: W. D. Billings/F. Golley/O. L. Lange et al. (Eds.). Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 89–106.
Garelick, H./Jones, H./Dybowska, A./Valsami-Jones, E. (2008). Arsenic pollution sources. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 197, 17–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79284-2_2.
Gault, A. G./Rowland, H. A. L./Charnock, J. M./Wogelius, R. A./Gomez-Morilla, I./Vong, S./Leng, M./Samreth, S./Sampson, M. L./Polya, D. A. (2008). Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia. The Science of the Total Environment 393 (1), 168–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.12.028.
George, C. M./Factor-Litvak, P./Khan, K./Islam, T./Singha, A./Moon-Howard, J./van Geen, A./Graziano, J. H. (2013). Approaches to increase arsenic awareness in Bangladesh: an evaluation of an arsenic education program. Health Education & Behavior : The Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education 40 (3), 331–338. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198112454735.
Ghosh, P./Banerjee, M./Chaudhuri, S. de/Chowdhury, R./Das, J. K./Mukherjee, A./Sarkar, A. K./Mondal, L./Baidya, K./Sau, T. J./Banerjee, A./Basu, A./Chaudhuri, K./Ray, K./Giri, A. K. (2007). Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 17 (3), 215–223. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jes.7500510.
Ghosh, P./Roy, C./Das, N. K./Sengupta, S. R. (2008). Epidemiology and prevention of chronic arsenicosis: an Indian perspective. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 74 (6), 582–593. https://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.45099.
Goodenough, W. H. (1963). Cooperation in change. an anthropological approach to community development. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.
Goswami, R./Kumar, M./Biyani, N./Shea, P. J. (2020). Arsenic exposure and perception of health risk due to groundwater contamination in Majuli (river island), Assam, India. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 42 (2), 443–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-019-00373-9.
Grantham, D. A./Jones, J. F. (1977). Arsenic contamination of water wells in Nova Scotia. Journal - American Water Works Association 69 (12), 653–657. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1551-8833.1977.tb06844.x.
Guha Mazumder, D. N./Haque, R./Ghosh, N./De, B. K./Santra, A./Chakraborty, D./Smith, A. H. (1998). Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India. International Journal of Epidemiology 27 (5), 871–877. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/27.5.871.
Guha Mazumder, D./Dasgupta, U. B. (2011). Chronic arsenic toxicity: studies in West Bengal, India. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 27 (9), 360–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kjms.2011.05.003.
Gulledge, J. H./O'Connor, J. T. (1973). Removal of arsenic (V) from water by adsorption on aluminum and ferric hydroxides. Journal - American Water Works Association 65 (8), 548–552. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1551-8833.1973.tb01893.x.
Guo, X./Fujino, Y./Kaneko, S./Wu, K./Xia, Y./Yoshimura, T. (2001). Arsenic contamination of groundwater and prevalence of arsenical dermatosis in the Hetao plain area, Inner Mongolia, China. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 222 (1-2), 137–140.
Hadi, A. (2003). Fighting arsenic at the grassroots: experience of BRAC's community awareness initiative in Bangladesh. Health Policy and Planning 18 (1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/18.1.93.
Halim, M. A./Majumder, R. K./Nessa, S. A./Oda, K./Hiroshiro, Y./Jinno, K. (2010). Arsenic in shallow aquifer in the eastern region of Bangladesh: insights from principal component analysis of groundwater compositions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 161 (1-4), 453–472. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0760-9.
Hall, M./Chen, Y./Ahsan, H./Slavkovich, V./van Geen, A./Parvez, F./Graziano, J. (2006). Blood arsenic as a biomarker of arsenic exposure: results from a prospective study. Toxicology 225 (2-3), 225–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2006.06.010.
Hanchett, S./Nahar, Q./van Agthoven, A./Geers, C./Rezvi, M. D. F. J. (2002). Increasing awareness of arsenic in Bangladesh: lessons from a public education programme. Health Policy and Planning 17 (4), 393–401. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/17.4.393.
Hanh, H. T./Kim, K.-W./Bang, S./Hoa, N. M. (2011). Community exposure to arsenic in the Mekong river delta, Southern Vietnam. Journal of Environmental Monitoring: JEM 13 (7), 2025–2032. https://doi.org/10.1039/C1EM10037H.
Harvey, C. F./Swartz, C. H./Badruzzaman, A. B. M./Keon-Blute, N./Yu, W./Ali, M. A./Jay, J./Beckie, R./Niedan, V./Brabander, D./Oates, P. M./Ashfaque, K. N./Islam, S./Hemond, H. F./Ahmed, M. F. (2002). Arsenic mobility and groundwater extraction in Bangladesh. Science 298 (5598), 1602–1606. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1076978.
Hassan, M. M./Atkins, P. J./Dunn, C. E. (2005). Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh. Social Science & Medicine 61 (10), 2201–2211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.04.021.
Hayat, E./Baba, A. (2017). Quality of groundwater resources in Afghanistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 189 (7), 318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6032-1.
He, W./Greenwell, R. J./Brooks, D. M./Calderón-Garcidueñas, L./Beall, H. D./Coffin, J. D. (2007). Arsenic exposure in pregnant mice disrupts placental vasculogenesis and causes spontaneous abortion. Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology 99 (1), 244–253. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm162.
Heijnen, H. (2003). Criteria for selection of technologies for arsenic mitigation. In: M. F. Ahmed (Ed.). Arsenic contamination. Bangladesh perspective. Dhaka, ITN-Bangladesh, Centre for Water Supply and Waste Management, 429–441.
Hoque, B. A./Hoque, M. M./Ahmed, T./Islam, S./Azad, A. K./Ali, N./Hossain, M./Hossain, M. S. (2004). Demand-based water options for arsenic mitigation: an experience from rural Bangladesh. Public Health 118 (1), 70–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0033-3506(03)00135-5.
Hossain, M. F. (2006). Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh—an overview. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 113 (1-4), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.034.
Hughes, M. F. (2006). Biomarkers of exposure: a case study with inorganic arsenic. Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (11), 1790–1796. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9058.
Hutchinson, J. (1888). On some examples of arsenic-keratosis of the skin and of arsenic-cancer. Transactions of the Pathological Society of London 39, 352–363.
Huyck, K. L./Kile, M. L./Mahiuddin, G./Quamruzzaman, Q./Rahman, M./Breton, C. V./Dobson, C. B./Frelich, J./Hoffman, E./Yousuf, J./Afroz, S./Islam, S./Christiani, D. C. (2007). Maternal arsenic exposure associated with low birth weight in Bangladesh. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 49 (10), 1097–1104. https://doi.org/10.1097/jom.0b013e3181566ba0.
Huysmans, K. D./Frankenberger, W. T. (1990). Arsenic resistant microorganisms isolated from agricultural drainage water and evaporation pond sediments. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 53 (1-2), 159–168. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00155000.
IARC (1980). Some metals and metallic compounds. An IARC working group on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans which met in Lyon, 23 - 30 October 1979. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Inauen, J./Tobias, R./Mosler, H.-J. (2013). Predicting water consumption habits for seven arsenic-safe water options in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health 13, 417. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-417.
Jain, C. K. (2002). Arsenic contamination in ground water: Indian scenario. Indian Journal of Environmental Health 44 (3), 238–243.
Järup, L./Pershagen, G./Wall, S. (1989). Cumulative arsenic exposure and lung cancer in smelter workers: a dose-response study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 15 (1), 31–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.4700150105.
Khalequzzaman, M./Faruque, F. S./Mitra, A. K. (2005). Assessment of arsenic contamination of groundwater and health problems in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2 (2), 204–213. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2005020002.
Khan, M. M. H./Sakauchi, F./Sonoda, T./Washio, M./Mori, M. (2003). Magnitude of arsenic toxicity in tube-well drinking water in Bangladesh and its adverse effects on human health including cancer: evidence from a review of the literature. Asian Economic Journal 4 (1), 7–14.
Kile, M. L./Cardenas, A./Rodrigues, E./Mazumdar, M./Dobson, C./Golam, M./Quamruzzaman, Q./Rahman, M./Christiani, D. C. (2016). Estimating effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes in a Bangladeshi cohort. Epidemiology 27 (2), 173–181. https://doi.org/10.1097/ede.0000000000000416.
Kim, K.-W./Chanpiwat, P./Hanh, H. T./Phan, K./Sthiannopkao, S. (2011). Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia. Frontiers of Medicine 5 (4), 420–433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-011-0158-2.
Kwok, R. K./Kaufmann, R. B./Jakariya, M. (2006). Arsenic in drinking-water and reproductive health outcomes: a study of participants in the Bangladesh integrated nutrition programme. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 24 (2), 190–205.
Lacasa, E./Cañizares, P./Sáez, C./Fernández, F. J./Rodrigo, M. A. (2011). Removal of arsenic by iron and aluminium electrochemically assisted coagulation. Separation and Purification Technology 79 (1), 15–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.03.005.
Le Luu, T. (2019). Remarks on the current quality of groundwater in Vietnam. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 26 (2), 1163–1169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9631-z.
Mahata, J./Basu, A./Ghoshal, S./Sarkar, J. N./Roy, A. K./Poddar, G./Nandy, A. K./Banerjee, A./Ray, K./Natarajan, A. T./Nilsson, R./Giri, A. K. (2003). Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 534 (1-2), 133–143. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1383-5718(02)00255-3.
Mandal, B. K./Chowdhury, T. R./Samanta, G./Mukherjee, D. P./Chanda, C. R./Saha, K. C./Chakraborti, D. (1998). Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenic-affected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India. The Science of the Total Environment 218 (2-3), 185–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(98)00220-4.
Mandal, B. K./Ogra, Y./Anzai, K./Suzuki, K. T. (2004). Speciation of arsenic in biological samples. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 198 (3), 307–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2003.10.030.
Mayer, J. E./Goldman, R. H. (2016). Arsenic and skin cancer in the USA: the current evidence regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water. International Journal of Dermatology 55 (11), e585-e591. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13318.
McArthur, J. M./Ravenscroft, P./Safiulla, S./Thirlwall, M. F. (2001). Arsenic in groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in Bangladesh. Water Resources Research 37 (1), 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900270.
Meharg, A. A./Rahman, M. (2003). Arsenic contamination of Bangladesh paddy field soils: implications for rice contribution to arsenic consumption. Environmental Science & Technology 37 (2), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0259842.
Melkonian, S./Argos, M./Chen, Y./Parvez, F./Pierce, B./Ahmed, A./Islam, T./Ahsan, H. (2012). Intakes of several nutrients are associated with incidence of arsenic-related keratotic skin lesions in Bangladesh. The Journal of Nutrition 142 (12), 2128–2134. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.165720.
Milton, A. H./Smith, W./Rahman, B./Hasan, Z./Kulsum, U./Dear, K./Rakibuddin, M./Ali, A. (2005). Chronic arsenic exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh. Epidemiology 16 (1), 82–86. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000147105.94041.e6.
Mohan, D./Pittman, C. U. (2007). Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents--a critical review. Journal of Hazardous Materials 142 (1-2), 1–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.006.
Moore, J. N./Ficklin, W. H./Johns, C. (1988). Partitioning of arsenic and metals in reducing sulfidic sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 22 (4), 432–437. https://doi.org/10.1021/es00169a011.
Mosler, H.-J./Blöchliger, O. R./Inauen, J. (2010). Personal, social, and situational factors influencing the consumption of drinking water from arsenic-safe deep tubewells in Bangladesh. Journal of Environmental Management 91 (6), 1316–1323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.02.012.
Mueller, B. (2017). Arsenic in groundwater in the southern lowlands of Nepal and its mitigation options: a review. Environmental Reviews 25 (3), 296–305. https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2016-0068.
Mukherjee, A. B./Bhattacharya, P. (2001). Arsenic in groundwater in the Bengal Delta Plain: slow poisoning in Bangladesh. Environmental Reviews 9 (3), 189–220. https://doi.org/10.1139/er-9-3-189.
Mukherjee, A./Bhattacharya, P./Savage, K./Foster, A./Bundschuh, J. (2008). Distribution of geogenic arsenic in hydrologic systems: controls and challenges. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 99 (1-4), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.04.002.
Mukherjee, A./Sengupta, M. K./Hossain, M. A./Ahamed, S./Das, B./Nayak, B./Lodh, D./Rahman, M. M./Chakraborti, D. (2006). Arsenic contamination in groundwater: a global perspective with emphasis on the Asian scenario. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 24 (2), 142–163.
Mukherjee, S. C./Rahman, M. M./Chowdhury, U. K./Sengupta, M. K./Lodh, D./Chanda, C. R./Saha, K. C./Chakraborti, D. (2003). Neuropathy in arsenic toxicity from groundwater arsenic contamination in West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 38 (1), 165–183. https://doi.org/10.1081/ese-120016887.
Mukherjee, S. C./Saha, K. C./Pati, S./Dutta, R. N./Rahman, M. M./Sengupta, M. K./Ahamed, S./Lodh, D./Das, B./Hossain, M. A./Nayak, B./Mukherjee, A./Chakraborti, D./Dulta, S. K./Palit, S. K./Kaies, I./Barua, A. K./Asad, K. A. (2005). Murshidabad - one of the nine groundwater arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal, India. Part II: dermatological, neurological, and obstetric findings. Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.) 43 (7), 835–848. https://doi.org/10.1080/15563650500357495.
Murphy, T./Phan, K./Yumvihoze, E./Irvine, K./Wilson, K./Lean, D./Ty, B./Poulain, A./Laird, B./Chan, L. H. M. (2018). Groundwater irrigation and arsenic speciation in rice in Cambodia. Journal of Health & Pollution 8 (19), 180911. https://doi.org/10.5696/2156-9614-8.19.180911.
Nahar, N./Hossain, F./Hossain, M. D. (2008). Health and socioeconomic effects of groundwater arsenic contamination in rural Bangladesh: new evidence from field surveys. Journal of environmental health 70 (9), 42–47.
Naujokas, M. F./Anderson, B./Ahsan, H./Aposhian, H. V./Graziano, J. H./Thompson, C./Suk, W. A. (2013). The broad scope of health effects from chronic arsenic exposure: update on a worldwide public health problem. Environmental Health Perspectives 121 (3), 295–302. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205875.
Nelson, Katie/Braff, Lara/Shook, Beth/Aguilera, Kelsie (2019). Introduction to Biological Anthropology. In: Beth Shook/Katie Nelson/Kelsie Aguilera et al. (Eds.). Explorations. An open invitation to biological anthropology. Arlington, VA, American Anthropological Association.
Nickson, R./McArthur, J./Burgess, W./Ahmed, K. M./Ravenscroft, P./Rahman, M. (1998). Arsenic poisoning of Bangladesh groundwater. Nature 395 (6700), 338. https://doi.org/10.1038/26387.
Pacyna, J. M. (1987). Atmospheric emissions of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury from high temperature processes in power generation and industry. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) (31), 69–87. Available online at https://scope.dge.carnegiescience.edu/SCOPE_31/SCOPE_31_2.02_Chapter7_69-87.pdf.
Palermo, M. R./Shafer, R. A./Brannon, J. M./Myers, T. E./Truitt, C. L./Zappi, M. E. (1989). Evaluation of dredged material disposal alternatives for US Navy Homeport at Everett, Washington. Vicksburg, Miss., US Army Eng. Waterways Exp. Lab.
Pandey, P. K./Sharma, R./Roy, M./Roy, S./Pandey, M. (2006). Arsenic contamination in the Kanker district of central-east India: geology and health effects. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 28 (5), 409–420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-005-9039-4.
Pandey, P. K./Yadav, S./Pandey, M. (2007). Human arsenic poisoning issues in central-east Indian locations: biomarkers and biochemical monitoring. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 4 (1), 15–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2007010003.
Parvez, F./Chen, Y./Argos, M./Hussain, A.Z.M. I/Momotaj, H./Dhar, R./van Geen, A./Graziano, J. H./Ahsan, H. (2006). Prevalence of arsenic exposure from drinking water and awareness of its health risks in a Bangladeshi population: results from a large population-based study. Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (3), 355–359. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7903.
Paul, B. K. (2004). Arsenic contamination awareness among the rural residents in Bangladesh. Social Science & Medicine 59 (8), 1741–1755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.01.037.
Pershagen, G. (1981). The carcinogenicity of arsenic. Environmental Health Perspectives 40, 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.814093.
Pontius, F. W./Brown, K. G./Chen, C.-J. (1994). Health implications of arsenic in drinking water. Journal - American Water Works Association 86 (9), 52–63. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1551-8833.1994.tb06246.x.
Rahaman, S./Sinha, A. C./Pati, R./Mukhopadhyay, D. (2013). Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 35 (1), 119–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-012-9460-4.
Rahman, M. M./Mandal, B. K./Chowdhury, T. R./Sengupta, M. K./Chowdhury, U. K./Lodh, D./Chanda, C. R./Basu, G. K./Mukherjee, S. C./Saha, K. C./Chakraborti, D. (2003). Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 38 (1), 25–59. https://doi.org/10.1081/ese-120016658.
Rahman, M./Sohel, N./Yunus, F. M./Alam, N./Nahar, Q./Streatfield, P. K./Yunus, M. (2019). Arsenic exposure and young adult's mortality risk: a 13-year follow-up study in Matlab, Bangladesh. Environment International 123, 358–367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.006.
Ravenscroft, P./Brammer, H./Richards, K. S. (2009). Arsenic pollution. a global synthesis. Chichester, U.K./Malden, MA, Wiley-Blackwell.
Rivera-Núñez, Z./Meliker, J. R./Linder, A. M./Nriagu, J. O. (2010). Reliability of spot urine samples in assessing arsenic exposure. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 213 (4), 259–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.03.003.
Rockett, J. C./Kim, S. J. (2005). Biomarkers of reproductive toxicity. Cancer Biomarkers : Section A of Disease Markers 1 (1), 93–108. https://doi.org/10.3233/cbm-2005-1110.
Rowland, H. A. L./Boothman, C./Pancost, R./Gault, A. G./Polya, D. A./Lloyd, J. R. (2009). The role of indigenous microorganisms in the biodegradation of naturally occurring petroleum, the reduction of iron, and the mobilization of arsenite from West Bengal aquifer sediments. Journal of Environmental Quality 38 (4), 1598–1607. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0223.
Roychowdhury, T. (2008). Impact of sedimentary arsenic through irrigated groundwater on soil, plant, crops and human continuum from Bengal delta: special reference to raw and cooked rice. Food and Chemical Toxicology : An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 46 (8), 2856–2864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.019.
Roychowdhury, T./Uchino, T./Tokunaga, H. (2008). Effect of arsenic on soil, plant and foodstuffs by using irrigated groundwater and pond water from Nadia district, West Bengal. International Journal of Environment and Pollution 33 (2/3), 218. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEP.2008.019395.
Roychowdhury, T./Uchino, T./Tokunaga, H./Ando, M. (2002a). Arsenic and other heavy metals in soils from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India. Chemosphere 49 (6), 605–618. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00309-0.
Roychowdhury, T./Uchino, T./Tokunaga, H./Ando, M. (2002b). Survey of arsenic in food composites from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India. Food and Chemical Toxicology : An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 40 (11), 1611–1621. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0278-6915(02)00104-7.
Ruiz de Luzuriaga, A. M./Ahsan, H./Shea, C. R. (2011). Arsenical keratoses in Bangladesh--update and prevention strategies. Dermatologic Clinics 29 (1), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2010.09.003.
Saint-Jacques, N./Brown, P./Nauta, L./Boxall, J./Parker, L./Dummer, T. J. B. (2018). Estimating the risk of bladder and kidney cancer from exposure to low-levels of arsenic in drinking water, Nova Scotia, Canada. Environment International 110, 95–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.10.014.
Samal, A. C./Kar, S./Bhattacharya, P./Santra, S. C. (2011). Human exposure to arsenic through foodstuffs cultivated using arsenic contaminated groundwater in areas of West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 46 (11), 1259–1265. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2011.598810.
Samanta, G./Das, D./Mandal, B. K./Chowdhury, T. R./Chakraborti, D./Pal, A./Ahamed, S. (2007). Arsenic in the breast milk of lactating women in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India and its effect on infants. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 42 (12), 1815–1825. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520701566785.
Sanjrani, M. A./Zhou, B./Zhao, H./Bhutto, S. U./Muneer, A. S./Xia, S. B. (2019). Arsenic contaminated groundwater in China and its treatment options, a review. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17 (2), 1655–1683. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_16551683.
Sarifuzzaman, M./Siddique, M. N. A./Ferdousi, F. K./Ahmed, E./Alam, A. M. S./Ullah, S. M. (2007). Studies of arsenic mobilization with iron, manganese and copper in borehole sediments of the river Padma.
Sarkar, A./Mehrotra, R. (2005). Social dimensions of chronic arsenicosis in West Bengal (India). Epidemiology 16 (5), S68. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001648-200509000-00165.
Sarkar, S./Greenleaf, J. E./Gupta, A./Ghosh, D./Blaney, L. M./Bandyopadhyay, P./Biswas, R. K./Dutta, A. K./Sengupta, A. K. (2010). Evolution of community-based arsenic removal systems in remote villages in West Bengal, India: assessment of decade-long operation. Water Research 44 (19), 5813–5822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.072.
Sarker, M. M. R. (2010). Determinants of arsenicosis patients' perception and social implications of arsenic poisoning through groundwater in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7 (10), 3644–3656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7103644.
Schell, Lawrence M./Burnitz, Kristopher K./Lathrop, Patrick W. (2010). Pollution and human biology. Annals of Human Biology 37 (3), 347–366. https://doi.org/10.3109/03014461003705511.
Schell, Lawrence M./Denham, Melinda (2003). Environmental pollution in urban environments and human biology. Annual Review of Anthropology 32 (1), 111–134. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.32.061002.093218.
Schell, Lawrence M./Gallo, Mia V./Denham, Melinda/Ravenscroft, Julia (2006). Effects of pollution on human growth and development: an introduction. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 25 (1), 103–112. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.25.103.
Schell, Lawrence M./Gallo, Mia V./Ravenscroft, Julia (2009). Environmental influences on human growth and development: historical review and case study of contemporary influences. Annals of Human Biology 36 (5), 459–477. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460903067159.
Schmitt, M. T./Schreinemachers, D./Wu, K./Ning, Z./Zhao, B./Le, X. C./Mumford, J. L. (2005). Human nails as a biomarker of arsenic exposure from well water in Inner Mongolia: comparing atomic fluorescence spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals 10 (2-3), 95–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/13547500500087913.
Sen, J./Chaudhuri, A. B. D. (2007). Effect of arsenic on the onset of menarcheal age. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 79 (3), 293–296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9206-7.
Sen, J./Chaudhuri, A. B. D. (2008). Arsenic exposure through drinking water and its effect on pregnancy outcome in Bengali women. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju 59 (4), 271–275. https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-59-2008-1871.
Shaikh, F. H./Syed, A. S./Rehman, A. (2018). Groundwater contamination and the risk of arsenic poisoning in Pakistan. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 68 (8), 1288.
Shankar, S./Shanker, U./Shikha (2014). Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation. The Scientific World Journal 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/304524.
Sharma, A./Flora, S. J. S. (2018). Nutritional management can assist a significant role in alleviation of arsenicosis. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS) 45, 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.09.010.
Shih, Y.-H./Scannell Bryan, M./Argos, M. (2020). Association between prenatal arsenic exposure, birth outcomes, and pregnancy complications: An observational study within the National Children's Study cohort. Environmental Research 183, 109182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109182.
Shrestha, R. R./Shrestha, M. P./Upadhyay, N. P./Pradhan, R./Khadka, R./Maskey, A./Maharjan, M./Tuladhar, S./Dahal, B. M./Shrestha, K. (2003). Groundwater arsenic contamination, its health impact and mitigation program in Nepal. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 38 (1), 185–200. https://doi.org/10.1081/ese-120016888.
Shukla, A./Awasthi, S./Chauhan, R./Srivastava, S. (2020). The Status of Arsenic Contamination in India. In: S. Srivastava (Ed.). Arsenic in drinking water and food. Singapore, Springer, 1–12.
Signes-Pastor, A./Burló, F./Mitra, K./Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A. (2007). Arsenic biogeochemistry as affected by phosphorus fertilizer addition, redox potential and pH in a west Bengal (India) soil. Geoderma 137 (3-4), 504–510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2006.10.012.
Singh, A. K. (2004). Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of North Eastern India. In: Proceedings of national seminar on hydrology with the focal theme on “water quality” held at National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, Nov 22.-23.
Singh, A. K. (2006). Chemistry of arsenic in groundwater of Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. Current Science 5 (91), 599–606.
Singh, E. J. K./Gupta, A./Singh, N. R. (2013). Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 20 (4), 2421–2434. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1127-2.
Slotnick, M. J./Nriagu, J. O. (2006). Validity of human nails as a biomarker of arsenic and selenium exposure: A review. Environmental Research 102 (1), 125–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2005.12.001.
Smith, A. H./Lingas, E. O./Rahman, M. (2000). Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78 (9), 1093–1103.
Spallholz, J. E./Mallory Boylan, L./Rhaman, M. M. (2004). Environmental hypothesis: is poor dietary selenium intake an underlying factor for arsenicosis and cancer in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India? The Science of the Total Environment 323 (1-3), 21–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.09.034.
Steinmaus, C./Carrigan, K./Kalman, D./Atallah, R./Yuan, Y./Smith, A. H. (2005). Dietary intake and arsenic methylation in a U.S. population. Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (9), 1153–1159. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7907.
Stinson, S./Bogin, B./O'Rourke, D. (2012). Human biology. An evolutionary and biocultural perspective. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley.
Stollenwerk, K. G./Breit, G. N./Welch, A. H./Yount, J. C./Whitney, J. W./Foster, A. L./Uddin, M. N./Majumder, R. K./Ahmed, N. (2007). Arsenic attenuation by oxidized aquifer sediments in Bangladesh. The Science of the Total Environment 379 (2-3), 133–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.11.029.
Styblo, M./Del Razo, L. M./Vega, L./Germolec, D. R./LeCluyse, E. L./Hamilton, G. A./Reed, W./Wang, C./Cullen, W. R./Thomas, D. J. (2000). Comparative toxicity of trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals in rat and human cells. Archives of toxicology 74 (6), 289–299. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002040000134.
Subramanian, K. S./Kosnett, M. J. (1998). Human exposures to arsenic from consumption of well water in West Bengal, India. International journal of occupational and environmental health 4 (4), 217–230. https://doi.org/10.1179/oeh.19126.96.36.199.
Thakur, B. K./Gupta, V. (2019). Valuing health damages due to groundwater arsenic contamination in Bihar, India. Economics and Human Biology 35, 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2019.06.005.
Tokar, E. J./Diwan, B. A./Waalkes, M. P. (2010). Arsenic exposure transforms human epithelial stem/progenitor cells into a cancer stem-like phenotype. Environmental Health Perspectives 118 (1), 108–115. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901059.
Tseng, W. P./Chu, H. M./How, S. W./Fong, J. M./Lin, C. S./Yeh, S. (1968). Prevalence of skin cancer in an endemic area of chronic arsenicism in Taiwan. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 40 (3), 453–463.
Vahidnia, A./van der Voet, G. B./Wolff, F. A. de (2007). Arsenic neurotoxicity: a review. Human & Experimental Toxicology 26 (10), 823–832. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327107084539.
van Geen, A./Win, K. H./Zaw, T./Naing, W./Mey, J. L./Mailloux, B. (2014). Confirmation of elevated arsenic levels in groundwater of Myanmar. The Science of the Total Environment 478, 21–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.073.
Visoottiviseth, P./Ahmed, F. (2008). Technology for remediation and disposal of arsenic. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 197, 77–128. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-79284-2_4.
Vizcaya-Ruiz, A. de/Barbier, O./Ruiz-Ramos, R./Cebrian, M. E. (2009). Biomarkers of oxidative stress and damage in human populations exposed to arsenic. Mutation Research 674 (1-2), 85–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.09.020.
Waalkes, M. P./Liu, J./Ward, J. M./Diwan, B. A. (2004). Animal models for arsenic carcinogenesis: inorganic arsenic is a transplacental carcinogen in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 198 (3), 377–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2003.10.028.
Wang, G./Fowler, B. A. (2008). Roles of biomarkers in evaluating interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 233 (1), 92–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2008.01.017.
Welch, B./Smit, E./Cardenas, A./Hystad, P./Kile, M. L. (2018). Trends in urinary arsenic among the U.S. population by drinking water source: results from the National Health and Nutritional Examinations Survey 2003-2014. Environmental Research 162, 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.12.012.
Williams, P. N./Islam, S./Islam, R./Jahiruddin, M./Adomako, E./Soliaman, A. R. M./Rahman, G. K. M. M./Lu, Y./Deacon, C./Zhu, Y.-G./Meharg, A. A. (2009). Arsenic limits trace mineral nutrition (selenium, zinc, and nickel) in Bangladesh rice grain. Environmental Science & Technology 43 (21), 8430–8436. https://doi.org/10.1021/es901825t.
Winkel, L./Berg, M./Stengel, C./Rosenberg, T. (2008). Hydrogeological survey assessing arsenic and other groundwater contaminants in the lowlands of Sumatra, Indonesia. Applied Geochemistry 23 (11), 3019–3028. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2008.06.021.
World Health Organization (2003). Arsenic in drinking-water. background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. Geneva, WHO.
Wyllie, J. (1937). An investigation of the source of arsenic in a well water. Canadian Public Health Journal 3 (28), 128–135. Available online at https://www.jstor.org/stable/41977559.
Xie, X./Johnson, T. M./Wang, Y./Lundstrom, C. C./Ellis, A./Wang, X./Duan, M. (2013). Mobilization of arsenic in aquifers from the Datong Basin, China: evidence from geochemical and iron isotopic data. Chemosphere 90 (6), 1878–1884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.10.012.
Xie, X./Wang, Y./Duan, M./Liu, H. (2009). Sediment geochemistry and arsenic mobilization in shallow aquifers of the Datong basin, northern China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 31 (4), 493–502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-008-9204-7.
Yadav, I C./Singh, S./Devi, N. L./Mohan, D./Pahari, M./Tater, P. S./Shakya, B. M. (2012). Spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater of southern Nepal. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 218, 125–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3137-4_3.
Yuan, C./Lu, X./Oro, N./Wang, Z./Xia, Y./Wade, T. J./Mumford, J./Le, X. C. (2008). Arsenic speciation analysis in human saliva. Clinical Chemistry 54 (1), 163–171. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2007.092189.
Yuan, T./Zhang, H./Chen, B./Tao, S. (2018). Association between lung cancer risk and inorganic arsenic concentration in drinking water: a dose-response meta-analysis. Toxicology Research 7 (6), 1257–1266. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8tx00177d.
Yunus, F. M./Khan, S./Chowdhury, P./Milton, A. H./Hussain, S./Rahman, M. (2016). A review of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: the Millennium Development Goal era and beyond. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13 (2), 215. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13020215.
Zablotska, L. B./Chen, Y./Graziano, J. H./Parvez, F./van Geen, A./Howe, G. R./Ahsan, H. (2008). Protective effects of B vitamins and antioxidants on the risk of arsenic-related skin lesions in Bangladesh. Environmental Health Perspectives 116 (8), 1056–1062. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10707.
Zeng, Q./Zhang, A: (2020). Assessing potential mechanisms of arsenic-induced skin lesions and cancers: human and in vitro evidence. Environmental Pollution 260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113919.
Zhang, Q./Rodríguez-Lado, L./Johnson, C. A./Xue, H./Shi, J./Zheng, Q./Sun, G. (2012). Predicting the risk of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Shanxi Province, Northern China. Environmental Pollution 165, 118–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.02.020.
Copyright (c) 2021 Jaydip Sen, Barry Bogin, Nitish Mondal, Sima Dey, Shreysai Roy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The journal is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Authors are at liberty to share their contributions, provided they give proper attribution to the original publication, without asking prior permission from the editors. Re-use for commercial purposes is allowed only be permission from the editors.
More information about this license is available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/