No evidence of growth impairment after forced migration in Polish school children after World War II




nutrition, stunting, socioeconomy, education, secular changes, pubertal timing


Background: Migration is omnipresent. It can come hand in hand with emotional stress which is known to influence the growth of children.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse whether type of migration (forced or voluntary) and the geographic direction had influenced the growth of Polish children after World War II.

Sample and Methods: A sub dataset of 2,208 individuals between the ages of 2-20, created from data of the 2nd Polish Anthropological Survey carried out in 1966–1969, including anthropometrical data and social and demographic information based on questionnaire, was used to analyse migration effects.

Results: No association could be found between the direction of migration and the height of the children. The confidence intervals of the means of all classified migration categories overlap significantly and the effect size of the influence of migration category on height is ds=.140, which is too low to see any effects, even if there were one.

Conclusion: Neither forced nor voluntary migration in Poland after World War II led to a change in height in children of migrating families.


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How to Cite

Rösler, A., Scheffler, C., & Hermanussen, M. (2023). No evidence of growth impairment after forced migration in Polish school children after World War II. Human Biology and Public Health, 1.



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