No association between anthropometry and IQ in Czech preschool children
Keywords:anthropometry, sex, preschool, intelligence quotient, early childhood
Background: Previous research has suggested that body mass index (BMI) and body height are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in older children and adults. However, due to the limited number of studies in this age group, there is a lack of consensus on whether there are relationships between IQ and some anthropometric measures, including sex, among preschool-aged children.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether there is a significant relationship between sex, BMI, height IQ, and subsets of IQ among preschool-aged children.
Sample and Methods: 59 preschoolers aged 4.01 to 4.99 years were sampled from selected preschools in Prague. Data on sex, weight and height were collected, and IQ was assessed using the IDS-P. The data were processed using the St. Nicolas house analysis, t-tests and multiple regression.
Results: Multiple Regression Analysis and St. Nicolas house analysis failed to show any significant relations between sex, BMI, height, and IQ subtests score (p>0.05).
Conclusion: In this study, no significant associations were found between sex, BMI, height, and IQ in preschool-aged children. The relationships among sex, BMI, height, and IQ are more complex. For a better understanding, it is therefore essential to have larger sample sizes and to understand these interactions within context and with other confounding social-economic-political-emotional l (SEPE) variables, as suggested in previous studies.
Azurmendi, A. /Braza, F./ Sorozabal, A./ García, A./ Braza, P. /Carreras, M.R./ Muñoz, J.M./Cardas, J./ Sánchez-Martín, J.R. (2005). Cognitive abilities, androgen levels, and body mass index in 5-year-old children. Hormones and Behavior 48, 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2005.03.003.
Beauchamp, J.P./Cesarini, D./Johannesson, M./Lindqvist, E./Apicella, C. (2011). On the sources of the height–intelligence correlation: New insights from a bivariate ACE model with assortative mating. Behavior Genetics 41, 242–252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-010-9376-7.
Benyamin, B./Wilson, V./Whalley, L.J./Visscher, P.M./Deary, I.J. (2005). Large, consistent estimates of the heritability of cognitive ability in two entire populations of 11-year-old twins from scottish mental surveys of 1932 and 1947. Behavior Genetics 35, 525–534. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-005-3556-x.
Bogin, B. (2021). Social-Economic-Political-Emotional (SEPE) factors regulate human growth. Human Biology and Public Health 1. https://doi.org/10.52905/hbph.v1.10.
Bogin, B./Scheffler, C./Hermanussen, M. (2017). Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height: Bogin et al. American Journal of Human Biology. 29, e22980. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22980.
Case, A./Paxson, C. (2008). Height, health, and cognitive function at older ages. American Economic Review 98, 463–467. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.98.2.463.
Corley, J./Gow, A.J./Starr, J.M./Deary, I.J. (2010). Is body mass index in old age related to cognitive abilities? The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study. Psychology and Aging 25, 867–875. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020301.
Cournot, M./Marquié, J.C./Ansiau, D./Martinaud, C./Fonds, H./Ferrières, J./Ruidavets, J.B. (2006). Relation between body mass index and cognitive function in healthy middle-aged men and women. Neurology 67, 1208–1214. https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000238082.13860.50.
Dahl, A.K./Hassing, L.B./Fransson, E.I./Gatz, M./Reynolds, C.A./Pedersen, N.L. (2013). Body mass index across midlife and cognitive change in late life. International Journal of Obesity (London) 37, 296–302. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2012.37.
Eston, R./Hawes, M. M./Reilly, T. (2009). Human body composition (from Eston and Reilly, 3rd ed. 2009). pp. 3–53.
Flores-Mendoza, C./Ardila, R./Gallegos, M./Reategui-Colareta, N. (2021). General intelligence and socioeconomic status as strong predictors of student performance in latin american schools: Evidence from PISA Items. Frontiers in Education 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2021.632289
Grieder, S./Grob, A. (2020). Exploratory factor analyses of the intelligence and development scales–2: implications for theory and practice. Assessment 27, 1853–1869. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191119845051.
Grob, A./Meyer, C./Hagmann-von Arx, P. (2009). Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS).
Hagmann-von Arx, P./Grob, A./Petermann, F./Daseking, M. (2012). [Concurrent validity of the HAWIK-IV and the Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS)]. Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 40, 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1024/1422-4917/a000148.
Hagmann-von Arx, P./Lemola, S./Grob, A.. (2018). Does IQ = IQ? Comparability of intelligence test scores in typically developing children. Assessment 25, 691–701. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191116662911.
Hagmann-von Arx, P./Meyer, C.S./Grob, A. (2008). Intelligenz- und entwicklungsdiagnostik im Deutschen sprachraum. [Intelligence and developmental scales in German-speaking countries.]. Kindheit und Entwicklung: Zeitschrift für Klinische Kinderpsychologie 17, 232–242. https://doi.org/10.1026/0942-5403.17.4.232.
Hagmann-von Arx, P./Petermann, F./Grob, A. (2013). Konvergente und diskriminante Validität der WISC-IV und der Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS) bei Kindern mit Migrationshintergrund. Diagnostica 59, 170–182. https://doi.org/10.1026/0012-1924/a000091.
Halkjær, J./Holst, C./Sørensen, T. (2003). Intelligence test score and educational level in relation to bmi changes and obesity. Obesity Research 11, 1238–45. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.170.
Hermanussen, M./Aßmann, C./Groth, D. (2021). Chain reversion for detecting associations in interacting variables—St. Nicolas House Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041741.
Kahn, H.S./Williamson, D.F. (1990). The contributions of income, education and changing marital status to weight change among US men. International Journal of Obesity 14, 1057–1068.
Kanazawa, S./Reyniers, D.J. (2009). The role of height in the sex difference in intelligence. The American Journal of Psychology 122, 527–536. https://doi.org/10.2307/27784427.
Lahmann, P.H./Lissner, L./Gullberg, B./Berglund, G. (2000). Sociodemographic factors associated with long-term weight gain, current body fatness and central adiposity in Swedish women. International Journal of Obesity 24, 685–694. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801219.
Marioni, R.E./Batty, G.D./Hayward, C./Kerr, S.M./Campbell, A./Hocking, L.J./Porteous, D.J./Visscher, P.M./Deary, I.J. (2014). Common genetic variants explain the majority of the correlation between height and intelligence: The generation scotland study. Behavior Genetics 44, 91–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-014-9644-z.
Murray, T.C./Rodgers, W.M./Fraser, S.N. (2012). Exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status, control beliefs and exercise behavior: a multiple mediator model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 35, 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-011-9327-7.
Nguyen, J.C.D./Killcross, A.S./Jenkins, T.A. (2014). Obesity and cognitive decline: role of inflammation and vascular changes. Frontiers in Neuroscience 8, 375. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00375.
Patil, S./Joglekar, C./Sonavane, S./Chavan, R./Bhat, P./Mohite, R./Deorukhakar, P./Jadhav, D./Dervankar, O. (2020). Relationship between anthropometric parameters and intelligence in preschool children from rural konkan. International Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research 30–34. https://doi.org/10.31878/ijcbr.2020.62.08.
Pollitt, E.,/Mueller, W. (1982). The relation of growth to cognition in a well-nourished preschool population. Child Development 53, 1157–1163.
R Core Team. (2021). R: The R Project for Statistical Computing [WWW Document]. URL https://www.r-project.org/ (accessed 23-04-22).
Sandrini, L./Di Minno, A./Amadio, P./Ieraci, A./Tremoli, E./Barbieri, S.S. (2018). Association between obesity and circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels: Systematic review of literature and meta-analysis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, 2281. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082281.
Scheffler, C./Nguyen, T./Hermanussen, M. (2021). Vietnamese migrants are as tall as they want to be. Human Biology and Public Health 2. https://doi.org/10.52905/hbph.v2.12.
Silventoinen, K./Posthuma, D./van Beijsterveldt, T./Bartels, M./Boomsma, D.I./ (2006). Genetic contributions to the association between height and intelligence: Evidence from Dutch twin data from childhood to middle age. Genes Brain and Behavior 5, 585–595. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00208.x.
Tabriz, A.A./Sohrabi, M.-R./Parsay, S./Abadi, A./Kiapour, N./Aliyari, M./Ahmadi, F./Roodaki, A. (2015). Relation of intelligence quotient and body mass index in preschool children: a community-based cross-sectional study. Nutrition and Diabetes 5, e176–e176. https://doi.org/10.1038/nutd.2015.27.
Tuvemo, T./Jonsson, B./Persson, I. (1999). Intellectual and physical performance and morbidity in relation to height in a cohort of 18-year-old Swedish conscripts. Hormone Reseach 52, 186–191. https://doi.org/10.1159/000023459.
Vignerova, J./Riedlová, J./Bláha, P./Kobzová, L./krejčovský, L./Brabec, M./Hrušková, M. (2006). 6. celostátní antropologický výzkum dětí a mládeže 2001, Česká Republika.
Wheeler, P.G./Bresnahan, K./Shephard, B.A./Lau, J./Balk, E.M. (2004). Short stature and functional impairment: a systematic review. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 158, 236–243. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.158.3.236.
Yu, Z.B./Han, S.P./Cao, X.G./Guo, X.R. (2010). Intelligence in relation to obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews 11, 656–670. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00656.x.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Chipo Malambo, Martin Musálek
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.