Television viewing and body fat distribution among Bengali school children of Kolkata, India
Keywords:Bengali, Kolkata, India, television viewing, physical activity, adiposity, school girls
Background: Childhood obesity is considered as a major concern since a couple of decades. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is clear and concerns about the future health impact of childhood obesity are currently well documented. Low level of physical activity, high quantity of fat rich junk food consumption and prolonged leisure time with television (TV) viewing were reported to be significantly associated with obesity.
Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the association of body fat distribution with television watching among school going Bengali children of Kolkata, India.
Sample and Methods: 200 girls (aged 10-15 years) from a very heterogeneous background were selected from one state school. Data on socio-demographic aspects, TV viewing, computer use, physical activity and dietary pattern were collected by pretested questionnaire after obtaining prior consent from competent persons. Anthropometric measurements were taken following standard techniques.
Results: Most of the participants preferred fat rich junk food and a few practice regular exercises. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) between groups depending on the duration of TV viewing. The adiposity related variables were standardized by standard deviation score before the inferential analyses. Adjusted multiple linear regression showed positive effects of the duration of TV viewing on BMI (R2=0.233) and MUAC (R2=0.277).
Conclusion: Irrespective of economic status, prolonged television watching leads to an adverse body fat distribution among teenage girls of Kolkata.
Anand, N./Suresh, M./Chandrasekaran, S. C. (2014). Effect of obesity and lifestyle on the oral health of pre adolescent children. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 8 (2), 196–198. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/6694.4058
Bowman, S. A./Gortmaker, S. L./Ebbeling, C. B./Pereira, M. A./Ludwig, D. S. (2004). Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics 113 (1), 112–118. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.113.1.112
Campbell, M. C./Manning, K. C./Leonard, B./Manning, H. M. (2016). Kids, cartoons, and cookies: Stereotype priming effects on children’s food consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology 26, 257–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2015.06.003
Desrochers, D. M./Holt, D. J. (2007). Children’s exposure to television advertising: Implications for childhood obesity. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 26 (2), 182–201. https://doi.org/10.1509/jppm.26.2.182
Giammattei, J./Blix, G./Marshak, H. H./Wollitzer, A. O./Pettitt, D. J. (2003). Television watching and soft drink consumption: associations with obesity in 11- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157 (9), 882–886. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.157.9.882
Halford, J. C. G./Gillespie, J./Brown, V./Pontin, E. E./Dovey, T. M. (2004). Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children. Appetite 42 (2), 221–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2003.11.006
Hingle, M./Kunkel, D. (2012). Childhood obesity and the media. Pediatric Clinics of North America 59 (3), 677–692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2012.03.021
Jago, R./Baranowski, T./Baranowski, J. C./Thompson, D./Greaves, K. A. (2005). BMI from 3-6 y of age is predicted by TV viewing and physical activity, not diet. International Journal of Obesity 29 (6), 557–564. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802969
Jordan, A. B. (2010). Children’s television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatric Annals 39 (9), 569–573. https://doi.org/10.3928/00904481-20100825-08
Kapil, U./Bhadoria, A. S. (2014). Television viewing and overweight and obesity amongst children. Biomedical Journal 37 (5), 337–338. https://doi.org/10.4103/2319-4170.125654
Kažoka, D./Vētra, J. (2012). Comparative analysis of the central body fat distribution of women in the urban population in Latvia. Papers on Anthropology 21, 137–146. https://doi.org/10.12697/poa.2012.21.10
Kuriyan, R./Bhat, S./Thomas, T./Vaz, M./Kurpad, A. V. (2007). Television viewing and sleep are associated with overweight among urban and semi-urban South Indian children. Nutrition Journal 6, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-6-25
Lipsky, L. M./Iannotti, R. J. (2012). Associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in the 2009 Health behaviour in school-aged children study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 166 (5), 465–472. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.1407
Lohman, T. G./Roche, A. F./Martorell, R. (1988). Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, IL.
Maccoby, E. E. (1951). Television: its impact on school children. Public Opinion Quarterly 15, 421–444. https://doi.org/10.1086/266328
Neto, F. A./Eto, F. N./Pereira, T. S. S./Carletti, L./Molina, M. del C. B. (2014). Active and sedentary behaviours in children aged 7 to 10 years old: the urban and rural contexts, Brazil. BMC Public Health 14 (1), 1174. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1174
Toyran, M./Ozmert, E./Yurdakök, K. (2002). Television viewing and its effect on physical health of schoolage children. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 44 (3), 194–203.
WHO (2022). Obesity and overweight. Available online at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight (accessed 11/18/22).
WHTFCOR (2011). White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President | Let’s Move!. Available online at https://letsmove.obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/white-house-task-force-childhood-obesity-report-president (accessed 11/18/22).
You, W./Nayga, R. M. (2005). Household fast food expenditures and children’s television viewing: Can they really significantly influence children’s dietary quality? Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 30 (2), 302–314.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Sovanjan Sarkar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.