Practicability and user-friendliness of height measurements by proof of concept APP using Augmented Reality, in 22 healthy children

Keywords: body height, guideline, augmented reality, daily home-made measurements, iPhone, APP


Background: Child growth is a dynamic process. When measured at short intervals, children’s growth shows characteristic patterns that can be of great importance for clinical purposes.

Objective: To study whether measuring height on a daily basis using an APP is practicable and user-friendly.

Methods: Recruitment took place via Snowball Sampling. Thirteen out of 14 contacted families signed up for a study period of 12 weeks with altogether 22 healthy children aged 3 to 13 years (response rate 93%). The study started with a visit to the family home for the setup of the measurement site, conventional height measuring and initial training of the new measurement process. Follow-up appointments were made at four, eight and 12 weeks. The children’s height was measured at daily intervals at their family homes over a period of three months.

Results: The parents altogether recorded 1704 height measurements and meticulously documented practicability and problems when using the device.

A 93% response rate in recruitment was achieved by maintaining a high motivation within the families. Contact with the principal investigator was permanently available, including open communication, personal training and attendance during the appointments at the family homes.

Conclusion: Measuring height by photographic display is interesting for children and parents and can be used for height measurements at home. A positive response rate of 13 out of 14 families with altogether 22 children highlights feasible recruitment and the high convenience and user-friendliness of daily APP-supported height measurements. Daily APP measurements appear to be a promising new tool for longitudinal growth studies.


Apple Inc. (2022). Messen der Größe einer Person mit dem iPhone. Available online at (accessed 11/8/2022).

Ashizawa, K./Kawabata, M. (1990). Daily measurements of the heights of two children from June 1984 to May 1985. Annals of Human Biology 17 (5), 437–443.

Bogin, B. (2021). Social-Economic-Political-Emotional (SEPE) factors regulate human growth. Human Biology and Public Health 1.

Clarke, C. L./Bell, L. M./Gies, P./Henderson, S./Siafarikas, A./Gorman, S. (2019). Season, terrestrial ultraviolet radiation, and markers of Glucose metabolism in children living in Perth, Western Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16 (19), 3734.

Díaz-Zavala, R. G./Castro-Cantú, M. F./Valencia, M. E./Álvarez-Hernández, G./Haby, M. M./Esparza-Romero, J. (2017). Effect of the holiday season on weight gain: A narrative review. Journal of Obesity 2017, 2085136.

Gardner, B./Lally, P./Wardle, J. (2012). Making health habitual: the psychology of 'habit-formation' and general practice. British Journal of General Practice 62 (605), 664–666.

Glock, M./Hermanussen, M./Keller, E./Hartmann, K. K. (1999). Gulliver G-100 - A new device to evaluate daily growth measurement in comparison with Harpenden stadiometer. Hormone Research in Paediatrics 52 (6), 287–290.

Goodman, L. A. (1961). Snowball sampling. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 32 (1), 148–170.

Hermanussen, M. (1988). Knemometry, a new tool for the investigation of growth. A review. European Journal of Pediatrics 147 (4), 350–355.

Hermanussen, M. (1998). The analysis of short-term growth. Hormone Research in Paediatrics 49 (2), 53–64.

Hermanussen, M./Gausche, R./Keller, A./Kiess, W./Brabec, M./Keller, E. (2002). Short-term growth response to GH treatment and considerations upon the limits of short-term growth predictions. Hormone Research in Paediatrics 58 (2), 71–77.

Hermanussen, M./Geiger-Benoit, K./Burmeister, J./Sippell, W. G. (1988). Periodical changes of short term growth velocity ('mini growth spurts') in human growth. Annals of Human Biology 15 (2), 103–109.

Hermanussen, M./Rol de Lama, M. A./F-Tresguerres, J. A./Grasedyck, L./Burmeister, J. (1998). Short-term growth: evidence for chaotic series of mini growth spurts in rat growth. Physiology & Behavior 64 (1), 7–13.

Igl, J. (1906). Die Wägungen und Messungen in den Volksschulen zu Brünn. Der Schularzt 4, 753–760.

Keller, A./Hermanussen, M./Vogtmann, C./Kiess, W./Keller, E. (1999). Effect of erythrocyte transfusion on longitudinal bone growth of premature infants assessed by mini-knemometry. European Journal of Pediatrics 158 (10), 871–872.

Kobayashi, M./Togo, M. (1993). Twice-daily measurements of stature and body weight in two children and one adult. American Journal of Human Biology 5 (2), 193–201.

Lampl, M./Veldhuis, J. D./Johnson, M. L. (1992). Saltation and stasis: a model of human growth. Science 258 (5083), 801–803.

Lindberg, M./Nolvi, S./Härkönen, J./Aatsinki, A.-K./Karlsson, L./Karlsson, H./Uusitupa, H.-M. (2021). Associations between maternal socioeconomic, psychosocial and seasonal factors, infant characteristics and human milk cortisol concentrations. American Journal of Human Biology 33 (6), e23561.

Marshall, W. A. (1971). Evaluation of growth rate in height over periods of less than one year. Archives of Disease in Childhood 46 (248), 414–420.

Quantum Interface LLC (2022). Quantum interface. Available online at (accessed 3/21/2022).

Sailer, M./Hense, J. U./Mayr, S. K./Mandl, H. (2017). How gamification motivates: An experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior 69, 371–380.

Saller, K. (1957). Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der anthropologischen Methoden / begr. von Rudolf Martin. 3rd, fully revised and updated ed. Stuttgart, G. Fischer.

Schrade, L./Scheffler, C. (2013). Assessing the applicability of the digital laser rangefinder GLM Professional® Bosch 250 VF for anthropometric field studies. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 70 (2), 137–145.

Shackleton, V. J. (1981). Boredom and repetitive work: A review. Personnel Review 10 (4), 30–36.

Smith, P. C./Lem, C. (1955). Positive aspects of motivation in repetitive work: effects of lot size upon spacing of voluntary work stoppages. Journal of Applied Psychology 39 (5), 330–333.

Tanaka, C./Reilly, J. J./Tanaka, M./Tanaka, S. (2018). Changes in weight, sedentary behaviour and physical activity during the school year and summer vacation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (5), 915.

How to Cite
Rösler, A., Gasparatos, N., Hermanussen, M., & Scheffler, C. (2022). Practicability and user-friendliness of height measurements by proof of concept APP using Augmented Reality, in 22 healthy children. Human Biology and Public Health, 2.