Prevalence of obesity and hypertension among the adult Angami Naga of Nagaland, Northeast India

High prevalence of hypertension in an Indian indigenous population

  • Viserano Peseyie
  • Sudipta Ghosh North-Eastern Hill University
Keywords: Angami Naga, adults, overweight/obesity, blood pressures, hypertension

Abstract

Background: Obesity and hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) continue to be a threat to the global health. Prevalence of NCDs has been observed to be rapidly increasing even among developing countries.

Objective: The present study aims to assess the male-female differences in blood pressure and hypertension and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adult Angami Naga of Nagaland.

Sample and methods: A cross-sectional sample of 194 (108 males and 86 females) adult Angami Naga from Kohima district, Nagaland were participated in the study. Anthropometric data on height vertex and body weight, whereas blood pressure data on both systolic and diastolic, were measured on each participant. Nutritional status was evaluated through body mass index (BMI).

Results: Our results indicate high prevalence of hypertension among the Angami, for both SBP (50.0%Males vs 29.1%Females) and DBP (84.3%Males vs. 46.5%Females).A high prevalence of overweight and obesity (59.3%Males vs. 50.0%Females) was also found in the present population.

Conclusion: The main findings in the present study show that irrespective of the age and sex, hypertension and obesity is observed to be on the rise.

References

Ahirwar, R./Mondal, P. R. (2019). Prevalence of obesity in India: A systematic review. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Clin. Res. Rev. 13 (1), 318–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.08.032.

Babu, G. R./Murthy, G. V.S./Ana, Y./Patel, P./Deepa, R./Neelon, S. E. B./Kinra, S./Reddy, K. S. (2018). Association of obesity with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in India: A meta-analysis of observational studies. World J. Diabetes 9 (1), 40–52. https://doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v9.i1.40.

Basumatary, J./Begum, G. (2020). Risk factors of hypertension and physical activity level among the adult Wanchos of Arunachal Pradesh.pdf. Antrocom Online J. Anthropol. 16 (1), 187–195.

Beevers, G. (2001). ABC of hypertension: Blood pressure measurement. BMJ 322 (7292), 981–985. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7292.981.

Borah, P. K./Mahanta, J./Kalita, H. C./Bhattacharjee, Ch. K. (2020). Distribution of hypertension subtypes in a hill tribe of Mizoram, Northeast India. Indian Heart J 72 (5), 398–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2020.08.003.

Börjesson, M./Onerup, A./Lundqvist, S./Dahlöf, B. (2016). Physical activity and exercise lower blood pressure in individuals with hypertension: narrative review of 27 RCTs. Br. J. Sports Med. 50 (6), 356–361. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095786.

Bose, K./Ganguly, S./Mamtaz, H./Mukhopadhyay, A./Bhadra, M. (2006). Bose et al 2005 High prevalence of undernutrition among adult Kora Mudi tribals of Bankura district West Bengal India.pdf. Anthropol. Sci. 114, 65–68.

Carter, J. (2002). Part 1: The Heath-Carter Anthropometric Somatotype - Instruction Manual -. Instr. Man. (March), 1–25.

Census of India (2011). District Census Handbook, Nagaland. Dir. Census Oper. Nagal. SERIES-12 (PART XII-B), 308.

Chakrabarty, S./Bharati, P. (2010). Adult body dimension and determinants of chronic energy deficiency among the Shabar tribe living in urban, rural and forest habitats in Orissa, India. Ann. Hum. Biol. 37 (2), 150–168. https://doi.org/10.3109/03014460903234742.

Chu, D.-T./Singh, V. (2021). Obesity and hypertension in Asia: Current status and challenges. Lancet Reg. Heal. - West. Pacific 15, 100243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100243.

Das, M./Pal, S./Ghosh, A. (2008). Rural urban differences of cardiovascular disease risk factors in adult Asian Indians. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 20 (4), 440–445. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.20757.

Devi, K. S./Nilupher/Gupta, U./Dhall, M./Kapoor, S. (2020). Incidence of obesity, adiposity and physical activity pattern as risk factor in adults of Delhi, India. Clin. Epidemiol. Glob. Heal. 8 (1), 8–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2019.03.008.

Gerrior, S./Wenyen, J./Basiotis, P. (2006). An Easy Approach to Calculating Estimated Energy Requirements.pdf. Centers Dis. Control Prev. 3 (4), 1–4.

Ghosh, R./Bhatrati, P. (2005). Women’s Status and Health of Two Ethnic Groups Inhabiting a Periurban Habitat of Kolkata City, India: A Micro-Level Study. Health Care Women Int 26 (3), 194–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399330590917753.

Ghosh, S. (2017). Understanding chronic energy deficiency among population living under limited nutritional resources.pdf. Coll. Antropol. 41 (4), 327–334.

Gupta, R. (2016). Convergence in urban–rural prevalence of hypertension in India. J. Hum. Hypertens. 30 (2), 79–82. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2015.48.

Gupta, R./Gaur, K./Ram, C. V. S. (2019). Emerging trends in hypertension epidemiology in India. J. Hum. Hypertens. 33 (8), 575–587. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-018-0117-3.

ICMR (2010). Nutrient requirements and recommended dietary allowances for Indians. Indian Council of Medical Research. New Delhi.

IIPS/ICF (2017). National Family Health Survey (NFHS 4) 2015-16.pdf. Natl. Fam. Heal. Surv.

Kalra, S./Unnikrishnan, A. G. (2012). Obesity in India The weight of the nation.pdf. J. Med. Nutr. Nutraceuticals 1 (1), 37–41.

Kandpal, V./Sachdeva, M. P./Saraswathy, K. N. (2016). An assessment study of CVD related risk factors in a tribal population of India. BMC Public Health 16 (1), 434. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3106-x.

Kapoor, D./Iqbal, R./Singh, K./Jaacks, L. M./Shivashankar, R./Sudha, V./Anjana, R. M./Kadir, M./Mohan, V./Ali, M. K./Narayan, K. M./Tandon, N.l/Prabhakaran, D./Merchant, A. T. (2018). Association of dietary patterns and dietary diversity with cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adults in South Asia: The CARRS study. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 27 (6), 1332–1343. https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.201811_27(6).0021.

Khual, G. K./Limbu, D. K. (2019). Prevalence of Obesity and Hypertension Among the Zou Mothers of Manipur, Northeast India. Orient. Anthropol. A Bi-annual Int. J. Sci. Man 19 (1), 112–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972558X19835388.

Kshatriya, G. K./Acharya, S. K./Gonzalez-Bulnes, A. (2016). Triple Burden of Obesity, Undernutrition, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Indian Tribes. PLoS One 11 (1), e0147934. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147934.

Lalnuneng, A. (2022). Age variation in blood pressure: Rural–urban and sex differences among the Hmar adults of Manipur, Northeast India. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 34 (3). https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23656.

Lalnuneng, A./Khongsdier, R. (2017). Rural-Urban Differences in Hypertension among the Hmars of Manipur in Northeast India. Anthropol 28 (3), 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2017.1349627.

Limbu, D. K./Khual, G. K. (2020). Influence of BMI on Blood Pressure among the Padam of Arunachal Pradesh.pdf. Thar Multidiscip. J., 22–32.

Little, M./Humphries, S./Patel, K./Dewey, C. (2016). Factors associated with BMI, underweight, overweight, and obesity among adults in a population of rural south India: a cross-sectional study. BMC Obes 3 (1), 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40608-016-0091-7.

Liu, X./Zhang, D./Liu, Y./Sun, X./Han, C./Wang, B./Ren, Y./Zhou, J./Zhao, Y./Shi, Y./Hu, D./Zhang, M. (2017). Dose–Response Association Between Physical Activity and Incident Hypertension. Hypertension 69 (5), 813–820. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08994.

Luhar, S./Timæus, I. M./Jones, R./Cunningham, S./Patel, S. A./Kinra, S./Clarke, L./Houben, R./Joe, W. (2020). Forecasting the prevalence of overweight and obesity in India to 2040. PLoS One 15 (2), e0229438. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229438.

Maken, T./Varte, L-R. (2013). Anthropometric indicators as predictors of high blood pressure among the Ao tribe of Northeast India.pdf. Asian J. Med. Sci. 4 (3), 15–22.

Marbaniang, S. P./Lhungdim, H./Yadav, B./Yajurvedi, V. K. (2021). Overweight/obesity risks and prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in North Eastern India: An analysis using seemingly unrelated probit model. Clin. Epidemiol. Glob. Heal. 11, 100764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2021.100764.

Meshram, I./Boiroju, N. K./Longvah, T. (2021). Prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and its associated factors among women from Northeast India. Indian Heart J. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2021.12.009.

Mills, K. T./Bundy, J. D./Kelly, T. N./Reed, J. E./Kearney, P. M./Reynolds, K./Chen, J./He, J. (2016). Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control. Circulation 134 (6), 441–450. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018912.

Misra, P. J./Mini, G. K./Thankappan, K. R. (2014). Risk factor profile for non-communicable diseases among Mishing tribes in Assam, India: results from a WHO STEPs survey. Indian J. Med. Res. 140 (3), 370–378.

Mittal, P. C./Srivastava, S. (2006). Diet, nutritional status and food related traditions of Oraon tribes of New Mal (West Bengal), India.pdf. Rural Remote Health 6 (385), 1–11. Available online at http://rrh.deakin.edu.au.

Mungreiphy, N. K./Kapoor, S./Sinha, R. (2011). Association between BMI, Blood Pressure, and Age: Study among Tangkhul Naga Tribal Males of Northeast India. J. Anthr. 2011, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/748147.

Nguyen, P. H./Scott, S./Headey, D./Singh, N./Tran, L. M./Menon, P./Ruel, M. T./Goli, S. (2021). The double burden of malnutrition in India: Trends and inequalities (2006–2016). PLoS One 16 (2), e0247856. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247856.

NHLBI (2004). The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (JNC 7). National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.

Rengma, M. S./Sen, J./Mondal, N. (2015). Socio-Economic, Demographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among Adults of Northeast India. Ethiop. J. Health Sci. 25 (3), 199. https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v25i3.2.

Ruixing, Y./Jinzhen, W./Shangling, P./Weixiong, L./Dezhai, Y./Yuming, C. (2008). Sex Differences in Environmental and Genetic Factors for Hypertension. Am. J. Med. 121 (9), 811–819. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.04.026.

Sajeev, P./Soman, B. (2018). Prevalence of noncommunicable disease risk factors among the Kani tribe in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala. Indian Heart J 70 (5), 598–603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2018.01.022.

Shridhar, K./Satija, A./Dhillon, P. K./Agrawal, S./Gupta, R./Bowen, L./Kinra, S./Bharathi, A. V./Prabhakaran, D./Srinath Reddy, K./Ebrahim, S. (2018). Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study. Nutr. J. 17 (1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0327-0.

Singh, S./Shankar, R./Singh, G. P. (2017). Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Varanasi. Int. J. Hypertens. 2017, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5491838.

Tripathi, N. (2020). Prevalence of Hypertension in Indian Tribal Adult population: A Scoping Review. J. Adv. Res. Med. 07 (01), 5–13. https://doi.org/10.24321/2349.7181.202002.

Tushi, A./Rao, S. R./Pattabi, K./Kaur, P. (2018). Prevalence of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in a rural tribal.pdf. Natl. Med. J. India 31 (1), 11–14.

WHO (2002). The world health report reducing risks promoting healthy life.pdf. World Heal. Organ.

WHO (2004). Public health Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. World Heal. Organ. 363, 157–163.

WHO (2014). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases.pdf. World Heal. Organ.

WHO (2021). Overweight and obesity.pdf. World Heal. Organ.

Zhang, Y./Zhang, D. (2018). Red meat, poultry, and egg consumption with the risk of hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J. Hum. Hypertens. 32 (7), 507–517. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-018-0068-8.

Zhou, B./Bentham, J./di Cesare, M./Bixby, H./Danaei, G./Hajifathalian, K./Taddei, C./Carrillo-Larco, R. M./Djalalinia, S./Khatibzadeh, S./Lugero, C./Peykari, N./Zhang, W. Z./Bennett, J./Bilano, V./Stevens, G. A./Cowan, M. J./Riley, L. M./Chen, Z./ … /Cisneros, J. Z. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants. Int. J. Epidemiol. 47 (3), 872-883i. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy016.

Published
2022-09-14
How to Cite
Peseyie, V., & Ghosh, S. (2022). Prevalence of obesity and hypertension among the adult Angami Naga of Nagaland, Northeast India: High prevalence of hypertension in an Indian indigenous population . Human Biology and Public Health, 1. https://doi.org/10.52905/hbph2022.1.27
Section
Articles